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This explains another characteristic of the books written after the century of humanism: their lack of convenience. We find few tables of contents, no references, no division into sections, no indicies, no chronology, sometimes not even pagination. The aparatus standard for scientific works today is not found even rudimentarily in the most perfect works of the period; and its absence is characteristic of the absence of intellectual technique.


The presentation of a book as an author's entire self, as a personal expression of his very being, supposes that the reader sought in it not the solution of a given difficulty or the answer to a given problem, but rather to make personal contact with the author. It was more a question of personal exchange than of taking an objective position.

Jacques Ellul, The Technological Society